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Buerger’s Disease

Buerger’s Disease, also known as Thrombangitis Obliterans, is the occlusion of small to medium-sized arteries and veins found in the bilateral upper and lower distal extremities. It results in thrombus formation and segmental occlusion of the vessels and when left untreated, the vessels of the large extremities may be affected as well. It usually occurs […]

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Cataract is an opacity of the lens wherein the projection of distorted images onto the retina may eventually cause reduced visual acuity blindness. As the eye ages, the lens loses water, increases in size and density, causing compression of lens fibers. As such, oxygen uptake is reduced, water content decreases, calcium content increases, soluble protein […]

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Colorectal Cancer

Colorectal cancer or colon cancer is a disease in which the cells in the rectum or colon grow out of control. This type of cancer occurs when tumors form in the large intestine lining. The risk of acquiring this disease increases after age 50. The most common type of colon cancer is the Adenocarcinoma, which […]

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Bladder Cancer

Bladder cancer is a papillomatous growth in the bladder urothelium. Changes that may cause the infiltration of the bladder wall may occur. Some predisposing factors are cigarette smoking, industrial chemicals exposure, and radiation exposure. Common signs of metastasis include the liver, bones and lungs. Progression of the tumor may extend to the rectum, vagina, and […]

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Bell’s Palsy

Bell’s Palsy, commonly known as facial paralysis, is due to the peripheral involvement of the 7th cranial nerve on one side of the face, resulting in weakness or paralysis of the muscles in that area. Possible causes include vascular ischemia, viral diseases (herpes simplex, herpes zoster), autoimmune diseases, or a combination. It induces pressure paralysis […]

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Chronic Bronchitis

Chronic bronchitis is a long-term condition wherein the lower airways become inflamed. It is characterized by the excessive secretion of mucus, hypertrophy of mucous glands, and recurring infection, progressing to narrowing and obstruction of airflow. The condition is primarily defined as a productive cough, which lasts for 3 months for at least 2 consecutive years. […]

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Alzheimer’s Disease

Alzheimer’s Disease is an irreversible, progressive brain disease that slowly destroys memory, cognition, and the ability to carry out the simplest tasks. The symptoms usually appear after 60 years old. It is also the most common cause of dementia, which is the loss of cognitive functioning such as thinking, remembering, and reasoning, interfering with one’s […]

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Liver Cirrhosis

Liver cirrhosis is a chronic disease where hepatic tissue cells are destroyed and eventually fibrose. Laennec’s (Alcohol-Induced) Cirrhosis, the most common form, results from chronic alcoholism and malnutrition, with fibrosis occuring in the central and portal areas. Postnecrotic (Micronodular) Cirrhosis results from previous acute viral hepatitis and/or drug-induced massive hepatic necrosis, giving rise to scar […]

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Cholelithiasis and Cholecystitis

Cholelithiasis is the formation of gallstones, which are hardened deposits of digestive fluids that are produced inside the gallbladder. Gallstones are made up of either cholesterol or pigment stones. Gallstones are not necessarily a serious problem; however it may lead to an obstruction in the normal flow of bile, causing cholecystitis. Cholecystitis is an inflammation […]

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Appendicitis is a condition where the appendix becomes inflamed. This causes a rupture and may result in peritonitis and sepsis. If left untreated, appendicitis could result in the bursting of your appendix, which could cause bacteria to enter your abdominal cavity. There are 2 types of appendicitis. Acute appendicitis occurs as a severe and sudden […]

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